Nanotechnology and nanomaterial are expected to be promising in many fields of medical applications,mainly in cancer treatment.One application of nanotechnology in medicine currently being developed involves employing nanoparticles to deliver drugs, heat, light or other substances to specific types of cells (such as cancer cells). Particles are engineered so that they are attracted to diseased cells, which allow direct treatment of those cells. This technique reduces damage to healthy cells in the body and allows for earlier detection of disease.
The reduction of drug particles into the sub-micron range leads to a significant increase in the dissolution rate and therefore enhances bioavailability. Targeting delivery of drugs to the diseased lesions is one of the most important aspects of drug delivery system.
They have been used to protect the drug entity in the systemic circulation, restrict access of the drug to the chosen sites and to deliver the drug at a controlled and sustained rate to this site of action.